Tuesday, February 14, 2006

Maslow's Hierarchy


The great psychologist Abraham Maslow developed this hierarchy of needs based upon observations of monkeys. Simply put, he noticed that some needs take precedence over others. Iif you are hungry and thirsty, for example, you will tend to try to take care of the thirst first. Because you can do without food for weeks, but you can only do without water for a few days, thirst is a stronger need than hunger. Likewise, if you are very thirsty, but someone has put a choke hold on you and you can’t breath, which is more important?

Maslow took this idea and created his now famous hierarchy of needs. Beyond the details of air, water, food, and sex, he laid out five broader layers -- the physiological needs, the needs for safety and security, the needs for love and belonging, the needs for esteem, and the need to actualize the self, in that order.

1. The physiological needs. These include the needs we have for oxygen, water, protein, salt, sugar, calcium, and other minerals and vitamins. They also include the need to maintain a pH balance (getting too acidic or base will kill you) and temperature (98.6 or near to it). Also, there’s the needs to be active, to rest, to sleep, to get rid of wastes (CO2, sweat, urine, and feces), to avoid pain, and to have sex.

Maslow believed, and research supports him, that these are in fact individual needs, and that a lack of, say, vitamin C, will lead to a very specific hunger for things which have in the past provided that vitamin C -- e.g. orange juice. I guess the cravings that some pregnant women have, and the way in which babies eat the most foul tasting baby food, support the idea anecdotally.

2. The safety and security needs. When the physiological needs are largely taken care of, this second layer of needs comes into play. You will become increasingly interested in finding safe circumstances, stability, protection. You might develop a need for structure, for order, some limits.

Looking at it negatively, you become concerned, not with needs like hunger and thirst, but with your fears and anxieties. In the ordinary American adult, this set of needs manifest themselves in the form of our urges to have a home in a safe neighborhood, job security and a nest egg, a good retirement plan and a bit of insurance.

3. The love and belonging needs. When physiological needs and safety needs are, by and large, taken care of, a third layer starts to show up. You begin to feel the need for friends, a sweetheart, children, affectionate relationships in general, even a sense of community. Looked at negatively, you become increasing susceptible to loneliness and social anxieties.
In our day-to-day life, we exhibit these needs in our desires to marry, have a family, be a part of a community, a member of a church, a brother in the fraternity, a part of a gang or a bowling club. It is also a part of what we look for in a career.

4. The esteem needs. Next, we begin to look for a little self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, fame, glory, recognition, attention, reputation, appreciation, dignity, even dominance. The higher form involves the need for self-respect, including such feelings as confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, independence, and freedom. Note that this is the “higher” form because, unlike the respect of others, once you have self-respect, it’s a lot harder to lose.

The negative version of these needs is low self-esteem and inferiority complexes. Maslow felt that Adler was really onto something when he proposed that these were at the roots of many, if not most, of our psychological problems. In modern countries, most of us have what we need in regard to our physiological and safety needs. We, more often than not, have quite a bit of love and belonging, too. It’s a little respect that often seems so very hard to get.

He also talks about these levels in terms of homeostasis. Homeostasis is the principle by which your furnace thermostat operates: When it gets too cold, it switches the heat on; When it gets too hot, it switches the heat off. In the same way, your body, when it lacks a certain substance, develops a hunger for it; When it gets enough of it, then the hunger stops. Maslow simply extends the homeostatic principle to needs, such as safety, belonging, and esteem, that we don’t ordinarily think of in these terms.

Maslow sees all these needs as essentially survival needs. Even love and esteem are needed for the maintenance of health. He says we all have these needs built in to us genetically, like instincts. In fact, he calls them instinctoid -- instinct-like -- needs.

Under stressful conditions, or when survival is threatened, we can “regress” to a lower need level. When you great career falls flat, you might seek out a little attention. When your family ups and leaves you, it seems that love is again all you ever wanted. When you face chapter eleven after a long and happy life, you suddenly can’t think of anything except money.

These things can occur on a society-wide basis as well. When society suddenly flounders, people start clamoring for a strong leader to take over and make things right. When the bombs start falling, they look for safety. When the food stops coming into the stores, their needs become even more basic.

***

A comment from BombsOverBaghdad in the previous post reminded me of the relevance of Maslow's hierarchy. Whether we are discussing the cartoons of the Prophet Mohamed or any other issue that raises passions in others, it is quite a luxury to look down from our ivory towers and comment from above about what others should and should not find offensive and how they should respond. Indeed, if we have the time to blog and comment, we are probably somewhere in the top three levels of Maslow's hierarchy and most of us have probably never experienced deficits in the lower two levels growing up in this country.

The callousness with which we pass judgment over others in whose shoes we have never walked is reminiscent of Marie Antoinette's missive "let them eat cake". It is reminiscent of Barak Obama's discussion of why White America could not grasp that there are people in New Orleans who could not load up the SUV with a case of Perrier water and check into a hotel to wait out the storm.

If we have never experienced deficits in the basic two levels of needs, can we ever relate to those who have and those who do?

108 Comments:

At 12:48 PM, February 14, 2006 , Blogger bombsoverbaghdad said...

Brilliance again. Still waiting on the book.

I have a comment and a question.

I was watching some reality show about a white American family from New Jersey that moved to Kenya to live in a very small town with a small Kenyan tribe. The American family was two parents and 3 kids, one of whom was a 8 year old boy. When they got to Kenya, the whole family hated it. It was rugged, hot, poor and the family had to shit in a hole in the ground, among other "indignities." After about a week, they started to feel more comfortable. Suddenly, shitting in the ground was not so bad. Eating goat was OK. They started learning the Kenyan customs and traditions, and grew closer to the tribe. They enjoyed the outdoors. After their monthlong trip was over, they were packing up to leave and the 8-year old son REFUSED to go. He cried and cried and actually ran away from his family to the home of the tribal elders. He had never before experienced that kind of human closeness. The hugging, the touching, the conversation--what really matters. To this day, I find that so amazing. His basic needs were altered, but his emotional needs were enhanced. I'd venture to say that there is almost an INVERSE relastionship between the two. "Poor people are closer to God."

I have fasted before and I find self-denial one of the greatest forms of self-actualization. You'll find out who you REALLY are when your needs are stripped away. I try to go weeks without buying ANYTHING and I find it makes me alter my beliefs on what I "need."

Lastly, II, you say that you are the person that fits in "everywhere and nowhere." How does that statement square with your application of the emotional Maslow???

 
At 3:26 PM, February 14, 2006 , Blogger mrsleep said...

I need to have this Administration stop ruining the country.

I am not worthy. I can only comment that this is excellent insight.

Actually too many Americans don't know what they need. They buy ton's of shit they don't need probably as compensation for the lack of emotional needs being satisfied.

 
At 5:39 PM, February 14, 2006 , Blogger Intellectual Insurgent said...

BOB -

Insightful question. I would like to think I am in the self-actualization stage (working on it) and the way Maslow described self-actualization, my description seems to fit. I'll post on that stage next and you can tell me whether you agree.

What reality show was that? That sounds like it may have been worth watching.

Dude, my dad had Alan Watts lectures going all day today while we were working, but I can't even begin to regurgitate the concepts I learned. The notion that one group is closer to God than another, however, is absurd. But then again, once you accept religion, you can pretty much accept anything.

 
At 6:09 PM, February 14, 2006 , Blogger bombsoverbaghdad said...

Closer to God in terms of a spiritual connect. Not a closeness that brings them any higher rights.

Shoot, I know one group of people that says God "Chose" them. The rest of the world has even bought into it . . . go figure.

 
At 6:42 PM, February 14, 2006 , Blogger Boris Yeltsin said...

Your point on my blog about the people of New Orleans not being able to afford houses is probably "spot-on."

But why? As the old saying goes, you can lead a horse to water, but you can't make it drink.

Where I work, the work is steady and we're not paid a fortune, but if you're good with money and understand the importance of getting and maintaining good credit, you can do pretty well for yourself. (It took me five years of seniority before I stopped calling the company credit union, the "collateral union.")

But it's so frustrating for me to see people who've been there five years or more, who still live in apartments, still rent stuff by the week, still have lousy credit, and still buy everything with credit cards.

We'll be talking, and one of these people will ask me, "How do you know so much about the IRS and money and stuff?"

For their purposes (I used to be a licensed insurance agent, but I usually don't tell them that) I just tell them that I pay a CPA (not an account from H&R Block) about $150/hour to do my taxes and advise me in general, about money. That is true; the $150/hour, takes me about 10 hours of my pay to pay my CPA for one hour of her work, but guess what? People also wonder why I can afford this, that and the other thing on what measly little money we get.

BTW: she's worth every penny.

You know what though? People then get smug, because they think I'm stupid for paying that much to get my taxes done, when H&R Block or someone's mom or girlfriend or whatever, does them for next to nothing. They think to themselves, "He may have alot of nice things, but at least I'm not stupid enough to pay someone $150/hour for something."

You can lead a horse to water, but you can't make it drink.

I work beside a guy from Kentucky who owns 8 rental houses. When he hears people freak out about me paying a CPA that much money, he always says, "If you take your money seriously, your money will take you seriously."

This guy's never worked a white-collar job in his entire life. He started off chopping tobacco on a farm in Kentucky, and his life didn't get much easier from there.

He thinks my CPA is cheap, and wants to know her name!

 
At 7:00 PM, February 14, 2006 , Blogger Intellectual Insurgent said...

I am sure there are several reasons for the "why". Some people simply aren't as bright as others. Some people aren't responsible and no amount of financial counseling will ever do the trick (there are a few of those in my family and I am sure everyone has that one relative who is perpetually broke).

Part of it is the modern day caste system, which ties into a point you made in your post. If no one teaches you financial literacy, how will you know? If your parents didn't potty train you, would you innately learn how to take a poop with the rest of the civilized world? Probably not.

Kids learn from their parents and, unfortunately, most parents are horrible role models when it comes to morality, finance and other important life skills. So if your parents are numbnuts, and your neighbors are numbnuts and your schoolmates are numbnuts, what are the chances of ever climbing out of that? Sure there are inspirational stories, but let's be realistic about humanity.

I am not making excuses for anyone, but we have to appreciate that everyone is at a different place in Maslow's hierarcy. If we were all the same, life would be pretty dull.

 
At 7:31 PM, February 14, 2006 , Blogger Boris Yeltsin said...

You're right!

I still think the parents, the neighbors, the schoolkids, all of them, wouldn't be numbnuts if the rich folk of this country would allow the public schools to teach just a little bit about how money really works, that's all.

 
At 8:49 PM, February 14, 2006 , Blogger Intellectual Insurgent said...

Agreed.

I am a Big Sister in a mentoring program and we offer financial literacy workshops to the girls. My mentee's grandmother and aunt attended because they were so amazed by the information. For me, being the daughter of a CPA, it all seemed so basic, but their reactions made me realize how lucky I am.

 
At 11:47 AM, February 15, 2006 , Blogger Chris said...

Wow. Well said, II! You've given me something to think about... This morning I quit the band I've been in the past few years - problems with "esteem needs." It's nice to be able to put a finger on it! Take it to a national level and I can see where we're in more trouble than we think.

BoB - I have an uncle that was a Peace Corps Volunteer about twenty years ago in Malawi, Africa. When his two years was up, he came back to the U.S. long enough to donate all his stuff to the church and went back to Malawi on his own. He's been there ever since. Obviously he's getting something out of the experience there that he never got here. I think, like you said, he found out who he really is. I've often thought that the U.S. should make it mandatory for every citizen to go through something akin to Basic Training - not for military reasons, but rather to have a populace of well-balanced, self-confident citizenry.

Mrsleep - I know a lady who got into an argument with her husband. She stormed out of the house and bought a $350 iPod. She'll never use the iPod, and doesn't really know why she bought it. Compensation, pure and simple. It's hard to recognize, though, when you're doing it yourself.

Boris - I'm one of the numbnuts. I borrowed myself into one heck of a hole when I was in college in spite of numerous warnings, and have been struggling ever since. I still don't think I really "get it" when it comes to money. But, we're homeowners now, and are starting to see light at the end of the debt tunnel. I'm not an idiot (contrary to popular belief), but money was never discussed when I was a kid, and now that my brain is old and crusty I'm finding it hard to change ingrained financial habits. (Example - I have no savings account. Instead, and I'm not kidding, I keep my savings in a piggy bank. If I'd put it in a savings account, I'd spend it. If I can see all those one dollar bills spread out in front of me, suddenly that fifty-dollar purchase doesn't seem so urgent. Fifty crumpled-up one dollar bills seems like a LOT of money, for some reason, while a single swipe of the card for fifty bucks doesn't seem real.)

 
At 10:04 AM, February 18, 2006 , Blogger Boris Yeltsin said...

Just when you thought this thread was over...
"Fifty crumpled-up one dollar bills seems like a LOT of money, for some reason, while a single swipe of the card for fifty bucks doesn't seem real." - Chris

That's just what they want, too. Who's they? In my opinion, it's the government because they get their power from the people who finance their campaigns - and that's what they want.

But why? It's because, as long as they can keep you distracted by getting yourself into debt, you're not looking at what's really going on.

Speaking of scientists (I don't know who did this - probably Pavlov) but remember the frog in the boiling water experiement? You know, put a frog in a glass of room temperature water, put a low flame under the water, and the temperature of the water will rise so gradually, the frog will never notice, until the frog boils alive?

That's how the government (the people who finance their campaigns) want us to be like.

We're so distracted by our well-nurtured consumer instincts, that we don't notice how screwed we're getting. They do it little by little, so when we look back in the recent past, the screwing we're getting today, only seems like it's just a little more than the screwing we took yesterday, while we all fail to realize, that it's a huge screwing compared to the way things used to be decades ago. That's how they get away with it.

Before long, we're in your atypical Adam Smith set-up: the walled cities of the uber rich living on the inside, and the cardboard shanty towns of everyone else on the outside.

 
At 12:08 PM, February 18, 2006 , Blogger Intellectual Insurgent said...

BY -

Arabs have a funny joke. A man goes to a fortune teller and asks what his future will be. She responds that he will eat shit for the next 10 years. Horrified, he asks with hope, "well what will happen after the 10 years?" She responds, "you'll like eating shit."

That's the frog. That's right out of Machiavelli.

I read a quote that said, "democracy is a system that screws the poor and lets them vote for it." We vote with our wallets when we allow debt to run our lives. Think about how our advancement in society lies just as much in our educational degrees as in our credit scores. I know well-educated people who can't get homes affordably because they have bad credit. Amazing that people keep falling into the same trap.

 
At 8:19 AM, August 23, 2006 , Blogger Weight Watcher said...

Visualization is a tool that has been used for thousands of years by initiates of all the metaphysical schools. Today, it is incorporated into top athlete's daily routines and is used in business affairs frequently. It's use is wide-spread among highly successful people, either consciously or unconsciously, aware of its create power. So if it has stood the test of time and is still being used by high achievers we must come to the conclusion that it works! But has it ever worked for you?

If you answered 'yes' to the above question then you know how powerful this technique can be. If, on the other hand, you gave the more likely answer 'no' then take heart for I am about to reveal to you a sure fire way of reaching your objectives through this mostly misunderstood art.

The trouble with visualization is simple - its in its name!

When studying and contemplating the art of visualization most people have the impression that they must create visual images and make them real or life-like. Many people, in fact the majority, find this almost impossible to do. Even if they can formulate a solid picture of their objective they find it extremely difficult to sustain the image for any length of time. Either the image fades, changes or other intruding thoughts intervene.

This type of visualization is almost impossible to sustain and luckily it is not at all necessary. Why? Because it is in the subconscious mind that your visualization needs to be placed and there is good news. The subconscious mind does not know the difference between an imaginary event and a real one. Your visual image only needs to be a strong visually as any other imagined event. However, that is only half the story.

If all you had to do was just imagine stuff and your world automatically changed to reflect your imaginings this world would be full of chaos (not to mention all those creepy crawly bug-eyed monsters!). Therefore, there are a few more steps to complete before the visualization is passed to the subconscious for manifestation.

Let's try a little experiment. Remember a scene from your past that has a lot of good feelings around it. Any good memory will do, like the first time you heard the words "I love you" from your partner, an amazingly spectacular sunset, a great holiday event or your last birthday. Pick one and remember it. How clear is the image? Can you remember any sounds? What way did you feel? Is there any sense of touch, taste or smell? Identify how your memory works. Is it mostly visual, auditory, kinaesthetic or of a feeling nature?

Now we are going to create an imagined event in our lives that has the same strength and potency as that image. So relax and let's go.

Imagine something that you do everyday, something that you did yesterday, today and will do tomorrow. Let us take the example of waking up tomorrow morning. Don't try to add or take anything away, just think about it and analyse the scene. Is it dark or light? Are you lying next to someone in bed? Do you still feel tired? Has the alarm clock sounded? Are you irritable that you have to get up or full of joy at the dawn of a new day?

You will find that the imagined event is very similar to the memory with probably one key difference - your point of perspective. Is the memory behind you and the future event in front of you? Is one to the left and one to the right? Maybe they are both in front of you or the future seems to move in a clockwise direction. Whatever the perspective the thing to notice is that they are very similar in appearance.

Now imagine doing your future event a week from now, then a month from now, then six months from now. Where are those images placed? Are they moving further away, going clockwise, from left to right? This is your time-line and using it is important in visualization as you will see later.

Ok, let's imagine something that is very unlikely to happen and see where it differs from the last image.

Imagine you are sitting somewhere familiar which is extremely comfortable and relaxing to you. Now imagine that a person you know well comes up to where you are and says "hello". Imagine them telling you that they want to show you a new trick. All of a sudden they have three juggling balls. They throw them in the air and begin to juggle with ease. Then they begin to whistle one of your favourite tunes. You suddenly realize that there is a strong smell of flowers in the room and notice a vase of them just behind the juggler. Imagine laughing loudly at the scene and feeling joyful at the experience. Then the person juggling leans forward stands on leg and puts the other leg outstretched behind them. All the while still juggling and whistling. Then they begin to hop on their leg as a small bird flies over to perch on their head. Once you have the imagined event and stayed with it a few moments just let it fade.

Ok open your eyes. What was the difference between the two images? Can you spot any? Did you use more, less or roughly the same senses in your fantasy event as you did in the future one? Did you see them from different angles? Was the picture bigger in one than the other? Was the sound clearer, the feelings more acute or the smell stronger? Take some time and go back to each scene in your mind. How does the future event differ from the fantasy one? Are you looking at both from a different vantage point? Do you see yourself in the image of one but not the other? Analyse the scenes and see where they differ.

Have you identified how the future event differs from the fantasy one? If you have then its time to make visualization work for you! Take a goal that you have been working on or would like to achieve. Nothing too far-fetched at this point please! Pick something that is possible but at the moment seems a little impractical. Once you have it form a mental image of what it would be like to have, be or do that thing or be in that experience. Remember to form it the same way you do a memory. Give it the same strength visually, in sound, feeling, taste and touch - use your mind in its natural state. All you have to do is imagine the scene.

Ok how does it differ from the scene of waking in the morning? Can you identify the differences in perspective, sound, taste, touch, feelings and what you hear?

Now there will be one other key thing that differs in the images- it is very simple but often overlooked. You know that the future event is going to happen! This is reflected in the way we experience the image. So what we are going to do is fool your subconscious mind into thinking your goal is definitely going to happen by manipulating your goal image!

Once you know what the differences are in each image begin to change the goal image so that it is seen the same way as the future event in your imagination. Place the visualized scene in exactly the same position with the same perspective as your future event.

Place it in the correct position on your time-line. You may already begin to feel that the goal is more possible. Visualise in this way everyday and you will condition your subconscious mind to manifest the experiences necessary to make your goal attainment certain.

One more thing to remember: During the day think about your goal often. This reinforces the visualization and will begin to dispel doubt from your mind. personal development plan

 
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