Sunday, November 13, 2005

The Paradox of Integrity


I never learned about Ernesto "Che" Guevara in school. Not even in college. People wear t-shirts with this universally recognized picture on it, but I had no idea what his image symbolized. The name was familiar to me, but I had no idea why.

Then the Motorcycle Diaries came out. It is the story of Ernesto's journey through South America on a motorcycle with his best friend. He chronicled the kind people he met along the way and the oppressive poverty that shackled so many in the countryside. Being from a well-educated family and in the midst of medical school, Ernesto encountered images that were hidden from him in high society of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It shocked him and it changed him forever.

The movie was moving and inspiring. I could totally relate. In South America, particularly Peru, I saw the poverty about which Ernesto complained. Old Cairo, right in the center of Egypt's capital, has a huge cemetery in which people live. A visit to an orphanage in northern Thailand was enough to make me want to adopt children. Cambodia is populated by survivors of horrific atrocities and you cannot visit without seeing the amputee survivors of landmines in the killing fields (Angelina Jolie's humanitarian work was sparked by her trip to Cambodia). You cannot see such things without feeling an overwhelming sense of helplessness and frustration that humanity allows such conditions to exist.

So what to do about it?

Ernesto took a second trip and ultimately landed in Mexico, where he met Cuban revolutionaries who were planning a revolt against Fulgencio Batista, the country's corrupt dictator. Joining forces with the Cubans, Ernesto became politically energized. Books on political philosophy were important tools in shaping the man who would become known as "Che", with Karl Marx and Mao XeDung the favored authors.

Led by a young lawyer Fidel Castro, Castro's brother and Che, the insurgency against Batista gained momentum in the countryside and, after brutal struggles, prevailed in the cities. By the time of victory, Che was an avowed Communist and had grand plans to remake Cuba into a Communist state modeled after China. The victorious revolutionaries murdered Batista's supporters, demanded business owners work for the state and stole private property to be used for the "public good." The man who was inspired to action by the injustices he saw, became a tyrant who inflicted great injustices on Cuba.

How did a man who had great empathy for the suffering he witnessed on his first trip through South America lose that empathy upon arrival in Cuba and callously inflict suffering in the name of the greater good? How did he become the tyrant he had once vowed to fight?

Che was consumed by what I would call the paradox of integrity.

Integrity means the "steadfast adherence to a strict moral or ethical code." In other words, it means that you accept one moral code as the correct code and you unwaiveringly cling to that code. Integrity is a good thing in the life of an individual. Principles, morals, values or whatever you like to call them help you cope with life's challenges and act as a guide through the many mazes we must navigate in this complex world.

At a certain point, however, integrity can become the most destructive part of the individual. Those who are absolutely, steadfastly convinced of the correctness of their code often violate their codes in the cause of preserving it. That is the story of history. That is the story of our current political landscape. Che believed he was helping humanity by liberating Cuba, and became a tyrant in doing so. Bush claims that the U.S. is at war to bring democracy to Iraq, but condones torture and denial of due process as tools to that end. Is it the necessary end that once you believe something so deeply, you must impose it on everyone else?

If a group of people voluntarily agrees to live on a commune and share everything equally, why would a supporter of capitalism and democracy have any objection? A religious person who shares her views is not problematic until she insists that everyone else follow along.

The Republicans have been my target for scorn lately, but admittedly I share many of their values. Democrats too. Libertarians too. Christians too. Muslims too. Buddhists too. Che Guevara too. There are lots of people out there who have profound wisdom, but is any one group the monopolist of the Right answer? I rip at the Republicans because they aren't practicing what they preach, i.e. because they are not perfect. So then, who is perfect? Democrats aren't. Libertarians aren't. Christians aren't. Muslims aren't. Buddhists aren't. Che Guevara wasn't.

I have been a participant in and spectator of several intellectual discussions in the blogosphere recently, everyone earnestly trying to define the Right answer. But is there one Right answer? Perhaps it is the existence of so many competing philosophies that keeps us from self-destructing. There is the extreme fringe on the right and left, but most people fall in the middle. It is the extremes that scare the population away from the edges. Some are Republicans because they don't want communism in America, and others are Democrats because people like Bush and Robertson want to make America a theocracy.

The more I read and the more I observe, I conclude that this philosophical tug-of-war is exactly what makes society healthy. It is balance, the Ying and Yang, about which Buddhism speaks. It is the challenge between God and Satan that makes the Bible so powerful (story of Job). One need only look to places and times where the people were convinced they had the Right answer -- violence, bloodshed and misery -- to see how disastrous it is when we lose balance. Because once you think you are Right, the ends justify the means and humanity, morality and law is thrown out the window. I hope we never find the Right answer. A see-saw is no fun when there is weight on only one side.

Whether you love or hate Che, he is a potent symbol, not of Communism, but of the best and worst we are all capable of being in our quest for perfection.


* For more about Che Guevara, you should read "Che" by Jon Anderson.

38 Comments:

At 4:16 PM, November 13, 2005 , Blogger Mahndisa S. Rigmaiden said...

11 13 05

Hello II:
EXCELLENT POST. And I think you are hitting on something that I have wondered about lately; the origins of truth and the definition of objectivity. Thx for citing my article! How trippy that we are thinking along the same lines, although with a different approach. I look forward to reading your blog more often! I am still thinking about your post on organized religion, the comments in my mind still need to be truncated. Thx for the post, as usual!

 
At 4:47 PM, November 13, 2005 , Blogger chad said...

Interesting theory you put forward about “the paradox of integrity”. It has face validity, and describes history quite well.
The skeptic in me however thinks that in actuality it may be the simple notion that power corrupts.
Regardless as to what actually made Che transform…your thoughts about the philosophical tug-of-war in society are eloquent and well stated. We are all individuals and no political movement really represents us exactly. Political parties are about power. Parity tries to classify each individual into a box, so that the people in that other box don’t get their way.

Keep the beautiful thoughts coming,
chad

“Cruel leaders are replaced only to have new leaders turn cruel.”
~Che Guevara

 
At 5:06 PM, November 13, 2005 , Blogger Patrick Joubert Conlon said...

II said: But is there one Right answer?

I believe there is. It's called Lockean liberalism and I know there is definitely a WRONG answer. It's called Marxism.

That's what made Che mad. It makes all communists mad because it is based on lies; the deceitful writings of a madman who twisted facts to suit his theory of dialectical materialism (just like Michael Moore twists his facts.)

Communism is evil - pure an simple because it is Christianity without God. You can't get more dishonest than that.

Some are Republicans because they don't want communism in America...

Yep, you got it. I'll take Pat Robertson over Jesse Jackson anyday although neither of them are welcome in my house. ;)

 
At 9:16 PM, November 13, 2005 , Blogger Stalin the Shark said...

This is probably the best piece I've seen from you, and not because I'm quoted :-).

You might want to consider using the example of Robespierre, which probably would elucidate the point you're trying to make without the predictable, reductionist 'communism is evil so that explains it all' response. He started out as 'the most honest of men', and became a monster in precisely the way you lay out for Guevara.

Very interesting. Would you consider a piece that contrasts two figures who hold great power, where one has absolute certainty and the other does not? An example might be a contrast between Robespierre and Jefferson.

:-), StS

 
At 9:07 AM, November 14, 2005 , Blogger Intellectual Insurgent said...

Chad - I think that power gives one the opportunity and the means to impose their views on other, but the desire to do so is there in "less" powerful people. It amazes me how people in America are salivating at the possibility of bombing more countries in the name of freedom, even if those countries did nothing to us. It's pathological. Another blogger wrote a good post on a similar issue: http://fogghorn.blogspot.com/2005/11/beast.html.

You are right though, power corrupts.

Patrick - I don't think Marxism is evil in and of itself. It is evil when it is imposed top down, but then again most things are evil when they are force fed involuntarily. I raised the question in the post about objections others would have to those who voluntarily choose to live in a commune. If it's a voluntary decision, what is wrong with that? I haven't read much on Locke, but I would assume that freedom of choice is the essence of his liberalism.
BTW - I tried to link to your blog and FAR's in the post, but the links wouldn't work. It's really frustrating.

StS - thank you for such a cool compliment. I will certainly think about writing about both men as soon as I read enough about them to feel like I really understand their philosphies.

Without having read "Che" by Jon Anderson, I wouln't have been comfortable to discuss Mr. Guevara. It's a great book. Anderson didn't paint Che as a magnificent hero, just the imperfect person we all are.

 
At 9:55 AM, November 14, 2005 , Blogger bombsoverbaghdad said...

I've read several books on Che. Some of what you say is not factually accurate. Che never became a tyrant in Cuba. Though he served as Castro's deputy for several years, he was never in a long-lasting position that would deserve the title, "tyrant." At least that's my opinion.

Upper-class Cubans, those who live in Florida now, are some of the most hippocritical people I have ever encountered. They were the kings and queens of an apartheid-style island where white businessmen from America were free to come frolic and exploit poor indian and black women. In breaking a situation like that, violence is necessary. Ruthless violence. Che knew that and he did what he had to do, just like George Washington or Nelson Mandela.

Often times, revolutionaries do not know how to govern, or they turn into dictators because they are trying to prevent the inequities that occurred in the past. In my view, people like Castro start out with good intentions, but in order to resist the US, for example, they have to oppress their own people.

 
At 10:15 AM, November 14, 2005 , Blogger Birdy said...

Excellent post, as always.
Really thought provoking and well crafted.
I think the one big hitch is that for the push and pull of debate to actually work it requires a lot of interactivity and, unfortunately, the US is a hotbed of ambivalence. Political activity seems to be strongest at the extremes - like an inverted bell curve.

 
At 10:25 AM, November 14, 2005 , Blogger Intellectual Insurgent said...

BOB -

Tyrant is defined as "a ruler who exercises power in a harsh, cruel manner." Is there a dispute that this applies to Che, regardless of whether he was in Cuba for 2 years or 50 years? Che was part of the early purges of the Batistas (he personally acted as judge in the "trials" of the Batistas that were followed by executions). Is there a dispute on that? He played a huge role in shaping the political philosophy of the regime. Correct?

 
At 10:35 AM, November 14, 2005 , Blogger bombsoverbaghdad said...

True. Let's not get caught up in semantics. Are you saying it was wrong to purge Cuba of Batista supporters?? I don't think it was. If you let them linger, they will takeover again. That's like letting a rattlesnake run around your house and not killing him because that would be mean.

Off with their heads!!!

 
At 10:46 AM, November 14, 2005 , Blogger Intellectual Insurgent said...

It was fine to get rid of Batista supporters, but supporter isn't every person who thought Batista was a swell guy. Of course they were going to get rid of his cadre, but I think there was room to incorporate others. Tying into Chad's comment, some people want power and aren't too concerned with who they have to ally themselves with to get it. Attacking everyone indiscriminately is not just tyranny, it is unwise politically.

Although I must commend Castro for remaining in power all this time. He must be a bad ass to have dodged assassination and prevented revolution all these years.

 
At 10:55 AM, November 14, 2005 , Blogger bombsoverbaghdad said...

Why would you want to incorporate your enemy?? Regime supporters were wealthy and powerful. Thus, if Castro were to let them linger, the regime supporters would have been able to subvert him easily due to their enormous resources. I wouldn't say that Che and Castro attacked people "indiscriminately," but sometimes you have to send a "message," ya know.

Castro has stayed in power because he is brutal and Cuba is so isolated that outside ideas and movements do not catch hold. While I am a supporter of the Revolution, I do not support Castro now. Still, however, there is a large segment of the Cuban population that does not wish to become Puerto Rico or Jamaica.

 
At 11:07 AM, November 14, 2005 , Blogger Intellectual Insurgent said...

You don't incorporate your enemy. You figure out which people can be of use to you and see if you can interest them in a position within your own ranks.

Hitler didn't attack all Jews at the beginning. During one of his first calls for a boycott of Jewish businesses, he exempted the big businesses with many employess from the boycott. He knew that boycotting larger business would leave even more people unemployed at a very bad time in the German economy. Hitler didn't snatch power all at once. He did it slowly and in a very calculated fashion. It was very Machiavellian.

Castro and Che, on the other hand, snatched it and destroyed the economy in the process. You can't have a glorious revolution without having an idea of how to keep businesses running and people employed.

Idle hands lead to revolution.

 
At 12:35 PM, November 14, 2005 , Blogger bombsoverbaghdad said...

"You don't incorporate your enemy. You figure out which people can be of use to you and see if you can interest them in a position within your own ranks."

You sound like George Bush trying to get Sunnis to join the government. If you were a Sunni, would you join the American-made government?

I don't think you can compare the German and Cuban economies. Cuba was much more agrarian and bottom heavy. Plus, at that time, Hitler didn't have the power he had towards the end. And I don't see why taking people out in stages is any better than taking it all at once. The point is it all falls down in the end anyways, right? That's why it's called "structural change."

 
At 2:57 PM, November 14, 2005 , Blogger Intellectual Insurgent said...

BOB,

You get rid of the Batistas, but you don't kill off anyone who disagrees with you if they don't take up arms against you. We can agree to disagree, but I think it's a contradiction in terms to have a revolution for "the people" and then self-select who is allowed to benefit from the revolution. Can you imagine what a disaster America would be if the victorious norterners simply slaughtered everyone in the south?

 
At 7:29 AM, November 15, 2005 , Blogger Patrick Joubert Conlon said...

You said: I don't think Marxism is evil in and of itself. It is evil when it is imposed top down...

Boy, that tells me a lot more about you than I had guessed and confirms for me why I dislike libertarians. Marxism always has to be imposed. It is the exact antithesis of freedom. Just ask the 100 million people who had it imposed on them - oh, sorry - you can't. They were slaughtered to bring about the great ideal of "social equality."

I am going to remove my link to your blog.

 
At 10:10 AM, November 15, 2005 , Blogger Stalin the Shark said...

The contention that 'communism is always imposed by force' is factually erroneous; in fact, communist parties have won victories at the ballot box on several continents, especially in the inter-war years.

This Patrick person claims to be a 'reformed ultra-leftist', which claim he undergirds by noting his conversion to right-wing extremism; problem is, as I often argue, that this transition from one extreme to the other doesn't involve any change in the underlying absolutist outlook, only a change in what exactly to be absolutist about.

Thus, the snit about removing a link to the heretic reminds me of the dogmatic battles between factions on the ultra-left. hard right and hard left are more similar than you think, and here is yet another example of that.

:-), StS

 
At 11:28 AM, November 15, 2005 , Blogger Intellectual Insurgent said...

Thanks Stalin. You said it better than I could have.

Patrick - you never answered why you would have any objection to anyone voluntarily choosing to live in a commune. Isn't voluntary action the essence of freedom?

Since I have never been de-linked before, I can't say I am terribly traumatized, but I think it speaks more to your character that you linked me then unlinked me in the span of a week based on me either completely agreeing with you or saying something with which you entirely disagree. It is apparent, and quite relevant to the subject of my post, that you withdraw from the discussion when a meaningful sign of disagreement arises. That is unfortunate as I genuinely enjoyed our exchanges. You are still welcome here anytime.

 
At 3:39 PM, November 15, 2005 , Blogger Patrick Joubert Conlon said...

Fair enough, II.

You said: you never answered why you would have any objection to anyone voluntarily choosing to live in a commune.

I don't have any objection to it. I lived in several hippie communes in the Sixties, and while they may not have been Utopia, they were were very interesting and educative - and all ultimately failed because they were based on freedom and were not coercive.

But communes are not communism (even if inspired by Marxist/Leninism or more accurately Marxist/John Lennonism.) They are more about "communalism."

 
At 4:32 PM, November 15, 2005 , Blogger Intellectual Insurgent said...

Patrick - perhaps we are having a semantic misunderstanding. In my view, Marxism/communism are interchangeable and include what you call "communalism". And if people voluntarily choose that organization for themselves, it does not seem problematic to me. Like I said before, if it is imposed upon people, that is evil as we have seen in Russia, China, Cuba, etc.

What is your distinction between Marxism and communalism?

 
At 4:45 PM, November 15, 2005 , Blogger Mahndisa S. Rigmaiden said...

11 15 05

II: I am certainly late to this discussion, but covered what Marx called primitive communism on the blog today. I dealt with how family structures are inherently communalistic, which ain't the same as Marxian. Also there ain't ever been a truly communist (Marxian) place. Democracy is the antithesis of Marxism and Stalin you know this!

 
At 5:22 PM, November 15, 2005 , Blogger Stalin the Shark said...

Mahndisa,

one does not lecture Stalin the Shark; it makes him very irritated indeed, especially if the lecture contains assertions not made.

The opposite of democracy is authoritarianism, whatever flavor it takes at a given moment. There's no practical diference between people who thump Das Kapital or thump the bible. Anyone who claims to have all the answers based on whatever dead text they present is a priori categorically wrong in my book, end of story. The problem with this patrick person is simply that he is incapable of making the perhaps too-fine distinction that there are forms of communal action that do not veer into totalitarianism; indeed, that's what our society is built on.

Democracy can't exist without either communal action or individual self-determination; too bad the ideologues, whatever camp they claim to belong to, can't see that.

:-), StS

 
At 7:51 PM, November 15, 2005 , Blogger Patrick Joubert Conlon said...

II said: What is your distinction between Marxism and communalism?

The short answer is: Statism and government. But communalism also has it's downside: Collectivism vs Individualism.

And how anyone can take an anomymous sock with a cap seriously beats me.

It's not semantics, II. Only rich people with no worries can afford semantics and allergies. ;)

 
At 10:13 AM, November 16, 2005 , Blogger Intellectual Insurgent said...

Mahndisa - democracy is not the antithesis of communism. Indeed, they can make strange bedfellows. America is not a democracy, it is a republic and the distinction is critical. In a democracy, the majority can deprive the minority of its rights by voting. Thus, the majority can vote to impose communism and, in democracy, that is okay. Democracy is a crass form of tyranny.

In a republic, like America, the minority is protected by a constitution and rules of law that cannot be voted away by the majority. The very essence of the Constitution is the protection of minority rights. The people have the right to elect representatives, but those representatives swear to uphold the Constitution (not the will of the majority of the constituency).

Patrick - I want to make sure I understand your point. Marxism is government action whereas communalism is at the individual level?

Once you get passed your initial philosophical disagreements, you will find the stuffed plush shark to be quite intelligent and humorous. He has managed to gain respect with some pretty hard-core right wingers with the cogency of his arguments. If you ever go to rosevilleconservative.blogspot.com,you will find some pretty entertaining debates. :-)

At the end of the day, we are all on the quest for truth and all of you are travelers on that path. Whether we all agree or not, a great deal of respect is due to those who make the effort of the journey. It's a rarity these days in our Britney Spears world.

 
At 3:00 PM, November 16, 2005 , Blogger Stalin the Shark said...

Yeah, hippie; your ad piscem attack only illustrates that you have little of substance to say.

:-), StS

 
At 3:22 PM, November 16, 2005 , Blogger Mahndisa S. Rigmaiden said...

11 16 05

Hello:
I am late here so this will be my last post on this thread. I honestly do think that communism is the antithesis to democracy because Marxism has to be applied from somewhere. Whe he spoke of each according to his needs and abilities, I always ask who is making the determination of what one needs or wants? I cannot think of any case ever where democracy and Marxism got along for any length of time. Socialist liberal states in Europe and of course Canada try, but are still into private property which is not allowable.

Yes Stalin:
I do think that authoratarianism is the antithesis to democracy. My point is that Marxism is necessarily authoritarian.

II: I did a post about how ethics are derived in our society yesterday. I realize that a truly participatory democracy never works and view our democratic republic as respect for the masses, but respect for the individual as well.

Thx for engaging and sorry about the tiff you and Patrick got in. He really feels strongly about communists and I can't say I blame him for the feelings, I just like to read your blog and think about what you say:) Good day:)

 
At 1:17 AM, November 21, 2005 , Blogger Free Agency Rules said...

ii,

Communal living is voluntary, where Communism/Marxism is forced.

I don't think a hippy commune is really marxist as long as you can leave.

The problem with Socialism and Communism is the freedom that is destroyed by the "force" of government to meddle in the affairs of the individual, by way of trying to be epithetic with the plight of others.

I am morally responsible for the poor around me, but when I am "forced" to help him, I am no longer free. This is the problem with Socialism and Communism.

Those in power such as Mao, Stalin, and current Socialist/Communist leaders want to force their form of "help" on everyone so they can be the "government knows best" hero.

It is morally wrong to "force" others, even if the result is good. The end never justifies the means. This is my main contention with sts.

:)


FAR.

 
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